Climate change may have threatening consequences for nature and man. We need to adapt to these, on the one hand, we need to moderate them, and then we need to stop the warming of our planet as soon as possible, that is, at the lowest average temperature. The planned start of adaptation worldwide is justified by the fact that, according to an IPCC report (2007), warming is likely to be man-made and will continue to do.

The key to planned adaptation, ie the change that has begun before the change takes place, is how much global change will take place and how the local climate will change in each region at each stage.


Observations from all continents and most of the oceans suggest that regional processes are already affecting some of the processes. Changes in snow and ice occurrences and frozen soils are clear, but changes in the extent and number of glacier lakes, more frequent rockfalls in mountainous areas, and changes in some Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems may also be linked to rapid warming in the area. There is also a high degree of certainty that the effects of climate change have also appeared in hydrological systems, such as increasing runoff and earlier spring peak water yields for many glaciers- and snow-fed rivers.


The effects of rising temperatures have been documented in agriculture and forestry in the higher northern latitudes, where crops are planted in the early spring. Certain indicators of human health have changed, such as heat-related deaths in Europe, the spread of vectors in certain areas, the emergence of allergenic plants, changes in pollen concentrations in the mid-to high-north latitudes, and so on. In addition, settlements in mountainous areas are at increased risk due to outbreaks of glacier lakes caused by melting glaciers. Warmer and drier conditions in the Sahel region of Africa have led to a shortening of the growing season, with detrimental effects on yields.

By the middle of the century, average annual runoff and usable water resources are expected to increase by 10–40% in higher latitudes and some wet tropics. It is also expected to decline by 10-30% in some medium-wide and dry tropical arid areas that are still water-scarce. The extent of the areas affected by the drought is likely to increase. The frequency of heavy rainfall is likely to increase, which increases the risk of flooding. Over the century, water supplies stored in glaciers and snow-covered areas are projected to decline, reducing usable water supplies in areas fed by the meltwater of large mountain systems, where more than a sixth of the world’s population currently lives.

The resilience of many ecosystems is likely to be exceeded by examples of climate change, associated disturbances (eg floods, droughts, bushfires, insects, ocean acidification), and other global trends (eg land-use change, pollution, over-exploitation of resources). without a combination. The peak of net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems in this century is likely to occur before the middle of the century and then weaken. But it could also be the other way around, exacerbating climate change. 20-30% of plant and animal species will be at increased risk of extinction if global temperature rises exceed 1.5-2.5 degrees Celsius. Significant changes in the structure and functioning of the ecosystem, with primarily negative consequences for biodiversity and for ecosystem goods and services such as water and food supply. Increased ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is likely to have negative effects on limestone organisms (e.g., corals) and species dependent on them.

Coastal areas are also likely to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion due to climate change and sea-level rise. The impact will be exacerbated by increasing pressures from human activity. By the 2080s, many millions more people are likely to suffer from flooding each year due to rising sea levels. Densely populated and low-lying areas where adaptability is relatively low and which already face other challenges, such as tropical storms or the sinking of local coastlines, are particularly vulnerable. The number of those affected will be highest in the giant deltas of Asia and Africa, while the small islands will be particularly vulnerable.

Expected climate change is likely to affect the health of millions of people, especially those with poor adaptability. Increase in malnutrition and consequent disorders with effects on children’s growth and development; increasing mortality, morbidity, and injury rates due to heatwaves, floods, storms, fires, and droughts; increasing difficulty with diarrhea; the increasing incidence of circulatory and respiratory diseases and the altered spatial distribution of carriers of some infectious diseases are visible consequences of the change.

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